In insurance, a claim is a request made to an insurance company by an insured individual or corporate entity for payment or compensation of a loss or damage covered by the insurance policy. The claim is made following the occurrence of a covered incident. The compensation received by the insured individual will compensate for financial damages incurred as a result of the occurrence.

Simply put, a claim on an insurance policy is a formal notification to the insurance company that a loss or damage is covered by an insurance policy. The insurer will review the claim and see if the event or circumstances are risks covered by the policy. If the claim is approved, the benefit or payout refers to the replacement or repair of any property or any money made by the insurer who will then assess the claim’s value and offer the appropriate benefit as provided in the insurance contract.

There are several types of insurance claims, including property damage claims, liability claims, personal injury claims, and disability claims, among others.

Insurance may offer financial security, risk management, legal compliance, business continuity, and investment possibilities to individuals and corporations.


The process of making an insurance claim in Nigeria may vary slightly depending on the type of insurance policy you have and the specific procedures of your insurance company. Different companies have different processes through which customers can file their claims, however, the steps provided in this article have been written to suit whatever insurance claim you are filing.

Insurance policies have specific terms and conditions that outline what is covered and what is excluded from coverage. It is essential to read and understand these terms and conditions before making a claim.

The steps to make a valid claim are as follows:

  • Determine your losses

Identifying your losses before informing your insurer is the first step to properly submitting an insurance claim. This can assist you in comprehending the kind and scope of your loss so that you can provide your insurer with accurate information when submitting an insurance claim. Furthermore, determining your losses will allow you to independently assess your losses in light of your insurance policy. That way, you save yourself the stress of filing for losses not contained in your policy.

  • Notify the insurance company.

Depending on your insurer, you may be required to file a claim within a specific time frame in order to get reimbursement. Some insurance companies may also require the complainant to fill out a Claim Form.

 It is strongly advised that you file your claim as soon as possible. Information will also be required to demonstrate the existence of any damage or injuries, You could be required to offer evidence on the circumstances surrounding the event, it’s setting, the people involved, and (if appropriate) the names and contact information of any witnesses. This is considered officially registering your losses, and you must ensure that you follow the procedures outlined in your insurance policy.

To complete the claim, certain insurance companies might need some supporting paperwork. Such required documents are often made available on their websites for the use of their customers. These documents may include a police report, medical report, receipts, and any other relevant evidence that supports the claim.

  • Assessment of Insurance Coverage

Following the receipt of the insured’s claim, the insurance company must now assess the authenticity of your claim. This is frequently handled by a claims specialist from an insurance company.  Before payment may be made, the insurance company must approve the claim. They will also check the validity of the insured’s insurance coverage.

The time it takes to process a claim is determined by the intricacy of the case and the insurance company’s efficiency.

It is important to note that the fact that the insured has experienced a loss and filed a claim for compensation does not determine that the insured will receive compensation. The insurance company must undertake an investigation to determine the cause of the loss and compute the overall losses. The loss adjuster from the insurance company will mostly conduct this assessment. The loss adjuster is often tasked with preserving the insurance company’s interests and ensuring compliance.

  • Payment and claim approval

A Claim is either approved or denied by the insurance company, once the insurance company gives approval for payment, the claims proceed to the stage when the insurer makes an offer to the insured and subsequently settles with them.

Payments may be issued to the insured, another individual entitled to the insurance policy, or a third-party organization. However, if the Claimant fails to substantiate his loss sufficiently, the Insurer may reject the obligation. If a claim is denied, the policyholder has the option to appeal the decision. The insurance company will typically provide instructions on how to appeal the decision.

In conclusion, to ensure a hassle-free insurance claim process, it is advisable to thoroughly review your insurance policy and diligently follow the instructions provided by the insurance company. By adhering to these guidelines, you can increase the chances of a successful claim and ensure a seamless experience. Furthermore, a careful approach and adherence to the recommended steps can make all the difference in the insurance claim process.


1Insurance claim in Nigeria | Get Insurance

2Insurance Claim Definition (

Written bKate Nkume for The Trusted Advisors

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